Polarization Effects in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions
Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.;
Truhlar, D. G.
J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2055.
Polarization effects in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions were analyzed for nine neutral and three charged organic solutes by the SM8 universal implicit solvation model and class IV partial atomic charges based on Charge Model 4M (CM4M) with the M06-2X density functional. The CM4M partial atomic charges in neutral and ionic solutes and in the corresponding clustered solutes (supersolutes), which included one solute molecule and one or two solvent molecules, were modeled in three solvents (benzene, methylene chloride, and water) and compared to those in the gas phase. The use of the supersolute approach (microsolvation) allows one to account for charge transfer from the solute to the solvent, and we find charge transfers as large as 0.06 atomic units for neutral solutes (pyridine in water) and 0.32 atomic units for ions (methoxide anion in water). Relaxation of the electronic structure of the solute in the presence of solvent increases the polarization free energy of the neutral solutes studied here, on average, by 16% in benzene, 30% in methylene chloride, and 43% in water. The increase for the ions in water averaged 43%.
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