Parameterization of Charge Model 3 for AM1, PM3, BLYP, and B3LYP
Thompson, J. D.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G.
J. Comput. Chem. 2003, 24, 1291.
We have recently developed a new Class IV charge model for calculating partial atomic charges in molecules. The new model, called Charge Model 3 (CM3), was parameterized for calculations on molecules containing H, Li, C, N, O, F, Si, S, P, Cl, and Br by Hartree-Fock theory and by hybrid density functional theory (DFT) based on the modified Perdew-Wang density functional with several basis sets. In the present article we extend CM3 to semiempirical molecular orbital theory, in particular Austin Model 1 (AM1) and Parameterized Model 3 (PM3), and to the popular BLYP and B3LYP DFT and hybrid DFT methods, respectively. For the BLYP extension, we consider the 6-31G(d) basis set, and for the B3LYP extension, we consider three basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d), and MIDI!6D. We begin with the previous CM3 strategy, which involves 34 parameters for 30 pairs of elements. We then refine the model to improve the charges in compounds that contain N and O. This modification, involving 2 new parameters, leads to improved dipole moments for amides, bifunctional H, C, N, O compounds, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids; the improvement for compounds not containing N results from obtaining more physical parameters for carbonyl groups when the O=C-N conjugation of amides is addressed in the parameterization. In addition, for the PM3 method, we added an additional parameter to improve dipole moments of compounds that contain bonds between C and N. This additional parameter leads to improved accuracy in the dipole moments of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles with five-membered rings.
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